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Understand the donation

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My uncle gave me bare ownership of an apartment and kept the usufruct. Does the furniture (table, chairs, etc.) automatically follow the same fate?

No. It all depends on your deed of gift. If it was expressly stipulated that the gift concerned the property and the furniture, then you are the owner of the furniture. Conversely, if your uncle only gave you bare ownership of the property, he retained ownership of the furniture.
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Following an argument with my daughter about the choice of her studies, I want to cancel the donation I gave her 5 years ago. Is it possible?

No. Indeed, when you donate, it is irrevocable. The donated property enters the patrimony of the donee (the one who receives the property) and you cannot recover it. However, there are legal exceptions to this irrevocability (article 953 of the Civil Code): when the donee has not fulfilled the obligations…
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I want to give bare ownership of assets to my minor grandchildren and keep the usufruct. If I die before they reach majority, I do not want these assets to be managed by their parents. Is this possible ?

Yes. It is entirely possible to make a donation to your minor grandchildren. This donation must be accepted by their legal administrators (their parents), in accordance with Article 935 of the Civil Code. However, you can specify in the donation act that the donated assets be managed by a third…
See more
I gave an apartment to my daughter, who has three children. If she dies before me, the notary tells me it's possible to get it back. Is this true?

Yes. Everything depends on how you draft your deed of gift. If nothing has been stipulated, as the gift is irrevocable, the law does not allow you to recover your property. On the other hand, if a "conventional return clause" has been provided for in the event of the predecease…
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I own a small house in the countryside in addition to my apartment in the city. Can I give it to my minor grandchild?

Yes. In order for the donation to be validly filed, in addition to the fact that it must be established by a notary, it is essential that the beneficiary accepts the latter (art. 932 C. civ.). When the beneficiary is an unemancipated minor, accepting a donation unencumbered by charges, which…
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My father and mother-in-law made a last living gift to each other. When my father died, she chose the option ¼ in full ownership, ¾ in usufruct. As my hereditary reserve is subject to this usufruct, can I bring an action for reduction?

No. Article 1094-1 of the French Civil Code states in its 1st paragraph that "In the event that a spouse leaves children or descendants, whether or not from the marriage, he or she may dispose in favor of the other spouse either of the property he or she could dispose…
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I would like to donate a sum of money to my grandchildren, but I am 82 years old, is it still possible?

Yes. It is always possible to make a donation, regardless of your age. However, the beneficiaries of the donation will not be able to benefit from the special allo-wance of 31,865 euros applicable to donations of sums of money (from article 790 G of the General Tax Code) granted in…
See more
Following an argument with my daughter about the choice of her studies, I want to cancel the donation I gave her 5 years ago. Is it possible?

No. Indeed, when you donate, it is irrevocable. The donated property enters the patrimony of the donee (the one who receives the property) and you cannot recover it. However, there are legal exceptions to this irrevocability (article 953 of the Civil Code): when the donee has not fulfilled the obligations…
See more
My father is planning to give me bare ownership of an apartment he owns. The notary has estimated its fee without considering the dismemberment of ownership. Is this normal?

Yes. For the fees associated with a gift deed, the notary's fees are calculated based on the full value of the property. This applies even when the donor retains the usufruct of the property (art. A444-67 C. com.).
See more
My grandfather gave me a piece of land. The deed of gift contains an inalienability clause valid until his death. I need to borrow money from a bank. Can the latter register a mortgage on my land?

Yes. If the inalienability clause has the effect of prohibiting you from selling or giving away the property you have received, it is always possible for your creditors to take out a mortgage registration on the property given (Civ. 1e, Oct. 9, 1985, n°84-13.306 concerning a judicial mortgage and Civ…
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What are the dangers of a manual donation?

In the French Civil Code, a donation is a solemn act. Note that there is a difference between a "présent d'usage" and a "don manuel". A "présent d'usage" or "faux don manuel" is a gift made on the occasion of a specific event (birthday, anniversary, etc.). It must be proportional…
See more
My grandfather gave me a piece of land. The deed of gift contains an inalienability clause valid until his death. I need to borrow money from a bank. Can the latter register a mortgage on my land?

Yes. If the inalienability clause has the effect of prohibiting you from selling or giving away the property you have received, it is always possible for your creditors to take out a mortgage registration on the property given (Civ. 1e, Oct. 9, 1985, n°84-13.306 concerning a judicial mortgage and Civ…
See more
I would like to make a donation-partage to my children with my apartment. Is it possible?

No. The operation would consist of giving each an undivided share of the property. However, the situation of joint ownership is incompatible with the donation-partage which requires that the donor distributes his property between the beneficiaries (art. 1075 C. civ. and Cass. Civ. 1e, 20 Nov. 2013, n°12-25.681).
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I would like to make a donation to the child I adopted as part of a simple adoption. Can he benefit from the reduction of 100,000 euros?

No. The reduction of 100,000 euros is applicable in relations between ascendants and their children (art. 779 CGI). Article 786 of the General Tax Code specifies that, except in special cases, the relationship resulting from a simple adoption is not taken into account for the collection of transfer du-ties free…
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I would like to make a donation to the child I adopted as part of a simple adoption. Can he benefit from the reduction of 100,000 euros?

No. The reduction of 100,000 euros is applicable in relations between ascendants and their children (art. 779 CGI). Article 786 of the General Tax Code specifies that, except in special cases, the relationship resulting from a simple adoption is not taken into account for the collection of transfer du-ties free…
See more
I gave an apartment to my daughter, who has three children. If she dies before me, the notary tells me it's possible to get it back. Is this true?

Yes. Everything depends on how you draft your deed of gift. If nothing has been stipulated, as the gift is irrevocable, the law does not allow you to recover your property. On the other hand, if a "conventional return clause" has been provided for in the event of the predecease…
See more
I am single and have no children. My niece wants to buy her own home and I would like to help her financially. What is the maximum amount I can give her without having to pay donation tax?

Theoretically speaking, nieces and nephews benefit from an allowance of 7967 euros on the value of donations received from their aunt or uncle (art. 779 V of the CGI). If you have no children of your own, your niece may also claim the 31865-euro allowance applicable to the donations. The…
See more
My father and mother-in-law made a last living gift to each other. When my father died, she chose the option ¼ in full ownership, ¾ in usufruct. As my hereditary reserve is subject to this usufruct, can I bring an action for reduction?

No. Article 1094-1 of the French Civil Code states in its 1st paragraph that "In the event that a spouse leaves children or descendants, whether or not from the marriage, he or she may dispose in favor of the other spouse either of the property he or she could dispose…
See more
I would like to donate a sum of money to my grandchildren, but I am 82 years old, is it still possible?

Yes. It is always possible to make a donation, regardless of your age. However, the beneficiaries of the donation will not be able to benefit from the special allo-wance of 31,865 euros applicable to donations of sums of money (from article 790 G of the General Tax Code) granted in…
See more
A few years ago, my mother remarried my stepfather, who adopted me (simple adoption). I want to give them money. I know my mother can benefit from a tax allowance. Is this also the case for my stepfather ?

No. For tax purposes, the kinship created by simple adoption is not considered for the calculation of gift or inheritance taxes (Article 786 of the General Tax Code), except for certain exceptions. However, these exceptions apply only to the adopted person and not to the adoptive parent. Your stepfather will…
See more
My father is single, and we are 4 children. I want to buy a piece of land to give it to the latter. However, I do not wish to be in joint ownership with my brothers and sisters upon his death. I heard about the conventional return clause. What is it about

The return clause inserted in the deed of gift allows the donor to recover ownership of the donated property, either in the event that the beneficiary of the donation dies before him, or in the event of the predecease of the beneficiary and his descendants (art. 951 Civil Code). It…
See more
I plan to have a mandate for future protection drawn up by my notary. Is it true that this warrant cannot be challenged once activated?

No. The future protection mandate allows you to designate in advance one or more people to represent you, in the event that you or you are no longer able to provide for your interests alone. However, the law provides for cases of termination of the mandate (article 483 of the…
See more
I want to give bare ownership of assets to my minor grandchildren and keep the usufruct. If I die before they reach majority, I do not want these assets to be managed by their parents. Is this possible ?

Yes. It is entirely possible to make a donation to your minor grandchildren. This donation must be accepted by their legal administrators (their parents), in accordance with Article 935 of the Civil Code. However, you can specify in the donation act that the donated assets be managed by a third…
See more
My father is under a notarized future protection mandate. I am the agent. He intended to make a donation but could not do so before this measure was implemented. Is it still possible ?

Yes. A future protection mandate does not prevent the protected person from disposing of their property with the assistance of their agent. However, Article 490 paragraph 2 of the Civil Code requires the agent to obtain the authorization of the guardianship judge to "perform a disposition act for free." The…
See more
My father donated a property to me in full ownership. Today, I want to sell it, but the notary has informed me that I need the signature of my brothers and sisters, even though I'm the only one who owns the property. Is this formality compulsory?

Yes. Article 924-4 of the French Civil Code stipulates that heirs with reserved rights may bring an action for reduction or revendication against third parties holding real estate that was donated and subsequently disposed of by the recipient. In practical terms, if your father's gift encroaches on your brothers' and…
See more
My uncle gave me bare ownership of an apartment and kept the usufruct. Does the furniture (table, chairs, etc.) automatically follow the same fate?

No. It all depends on your deed of gift. If it was expressly stipulated that the gift concerned the property and the furniture, then you are the owner of the furniture. Conversely, if your uncle only gave you bare ownership of the property, he retained ownership of the furniture.
See more
Several years ago, I built my house on a piece of land owned by my sister. When I decided to sell the property, I discovered that my name was not on the title deed. Is this normal ?

Yes. Under French law, the principle is that ownership of the land includes ownership of everything on and beneath it (Article 552 of the Civil Code). This means that even if you financed the construction of the house, your sister remains the owner. For the house to become your property…
See more
A few years ago, my mother remarried my stepfather, who adopted me (simple adoption). I want to give them money. I know my mother can benefit from a tax allowance. Is this also the case for my stepfather ?

No. For tax purposes, the kinship created by simple adoption is not considered for the calculation of gift or inheritance taxes (Article 786 of the General Tax Code), except for certain exceptions. However, these exceptions apply only to the adopted person and not to the adoptive parent. Your stepfather will…
See more
My father is under a notarized future protection mandate. I am the agent. He intended to make a donation but could not do so before this measure was implemented. Is it still possible ?

Yes. A future protection mandate does not prevent the protected person from disposing of their property with the assistance of their agent. However, Article 490 paragraph 2 of the Civil Code requires the agent to obtain the authorization of the guardianship judge to "perform a disposition act for free." The…
See more
My uncle owns and occupies a house. He plans to give it to me. Insofar as he will continue to live there, can I benefit from a discount on the value to be declared to calculate the gift duties?

No. Donation duties are calculated based on the real market value of the donated property, that is to say, on the price that could be obtained if it were put up for sale, according to the detailed and estimated declaration that you will have made (art. 761, al. 1 CGI)…
See more
My father donated a property to me in full ownership. Today, I want to sell it, but the notary has informed me that I need the signature of my brothers and sisters, even though I'm the only one who owns the property. Is this formality compulsory?

Yes. Article 924-4 of the French Civil Code stipulates that heirs with reserved rights may bring an action for reduction or revendication against third parties holding real estate that was donated and subsequently disposed of by the recipient. In practical terms, if your father's gift encroaches on your brothers' and…
See more
I am single and have no children. My niece wants to buy her own home and I would like to help her financially. What is the maximum amount I can give her without having to pay donation tax?

Theoretically speaking, nieces and nephews benefit from an allowance of 7967 euros on the value of donations received from their aunt or uncle (art. 779 V of the CGI). If you have no children of your own, your niece may also claim the 31865-euro allowance applicable to the donations. The…
See more
My father is single, and we are 4 children. I want to buy a piece of land to give it to the latter. However, I do not wish to be in joint ownership with my brothers and sisters upon his death. I heard about the conventional return clause. What is it about

The return clause inserted in the deed of gift allows the donor to recover ownership of the donated property, either in the event that the beneficiary of the donation dies before him, or in the event of the predecease of the beneficiary and his descendants (art. 951 Civil Code). It…
See more
My father is planning to give me bare ownership of an apartment he owns. The notary has estimated its fee without considering the dismemberment of ownership. Is this normal?

Yes. For the fees associated with a gift deed, the notary's fees are calculated based on the full value of the property. This applies even when the donor retains the usufruct of the property (art. A444-67 C. com.).
See more
I own a small house in the countryside in addition to my apartment in the city. Can I give it to my minor grandchild?

Yes. In order for the donation to be validly filed, in addition to the fact that it must be established by a notary, it is essential that the beneficiary accepts the latter (art. 932 C. civ.). When the beneficiary is an unemancipated minor, accepting a donation unencumbered by charges, which…
See more
My uncle owns and occupies a house. He plans to give it to me. Insofar as he will continue to live there, can I benefit from a discount on the value to be declared to calculate the gift duties?

No. Donation duties are calculated based on the real market value of the donated property, that is to say, on the price that could be obtained if it were put up for sale, according to the detailed and estimated declaration that you will have made (art. 761, al. 1 CGI)…
See more
I plan to have a mandate for future protection drawn up by my notary. Is it true that this warrant cannot be challenged once activated?

No. The future protection mandate allows you to designate in advance one or more people to represent you, in the event that you or you are no longer able to provide for your interests alone. However, the law provides for cases of termination of the mandate (article 483 of the…
See more
My uncle of French nationality lives abroad. He wants to help me finance the acquisition of my home by giving me money. Do I have to declare this operation in France ?

Yes. When the beneficiary of a donation is domiciled in France on the day of the donation or has had his tax residence in France for at least six years during the last ten years preceding the donation, all the assets he receives located in France or outside France are…
See more
Several years ago, I built my house on a piece of land owned by my sister. When I decided to sell the property, I discovered that my name was not on the title deed. Is this normal ?

Yes. Under French law, the principle is that ownership of the land includes ownership of everything on and beneath it (Article 552 of the Civil Code). This means that even if you financed the construction of the house, your sister remains the owner. For the house to become your property…
See more
My uncle of French nationality lives abroad. He wants to help me finance the acquisition of my home by giving me money. Do I have to declare this operation in France ?

Yes. When the beneficiary of a donation is domiciled in France on the day of the donation or has had his tax residence in France for at least six years during the last ten years preceding the donation, all the assets he receives located in France or outside France are…
See more
I would like to make a donation-partage to my children with my apartment. Is it possible?

No. The operation would consist of giving each an undivided share of the property. However, the situation of joint ownership is incompatible with the donation-partage which requires that the donor distributes his property between the beneficiaries (art. 1075 C. civ. and Cass. Civ. 1e, 20 Nov. 2013, n°12-25.681).
See more
My father is going to lend me 10,000 euros. I signed him an acknowledgment of debt. Should it be declared to the taxes? What is the difference with the registration of the deed?

Yes, loan contracts for an amount greater than 5,000 euros must be declared (article 49B appendix 3 and article 23L appendix 4 of the CGI) to the tax authorities on form no. 2062. You must file this declaration at the same time as your next annual income tax return, either…
See more
What are the dangers of a manual donation?

In the French Civil Code, a donation is a solemn act. Note that there is a difference between a "présent d'usage" and a "don manuel". A "présent d'usage" or "faux don manuel" is a gift made on the occasion of a specific event (birthday, anniversary, etc.). It must be proportional…
See more
My father is going to lend me 10,000 euros. I signed him an acknowledgment of debt. Should it be declared to the taxes? What is the difference with the registration of the deed?

Yes, loan contracts for an amount greater than 5,000 euros must be declared (article 49B appendix 3 and article 23L appendix 4 of the CGI) to the tax authorities on form no. 2062. You must file this declaration at the same time as your next annual income tax return, either…
See more