Notary family law: union, separation, adoption

Updated on Wednesday 13 April 2022

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My father is going to lend me 10,000 euros. I signed him an acknowledgment of debt. Should it be declared to the taxes? What is the difference with the registration of the deed?

Yes, loan contracts for an amount greater than 5,000 euros must be declared (article 49B appendix 3 and article 23L appendix 4 of the CGI) to the tax authorities on form no. 2062. You must file this declaration at the same time as your next annual income tax return, either…
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My mother, who has Alzheimer's disease, lives in a retirement home. The latter no longer has enough cash to finance it. Is it possible within the framework of a family authorization to ask the judge to buy back the premiums of her life insurance contract?

Yes. When a person is no longer able to express their will due to a medically confirmed alteration of their mental faculties, it is possible to request a family authorization from the guardianship judge. The authorization may be general or relate only to certain acts in regard to the protected…
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A few years ago, my mother signed a mandate for future protection and appointed me as her proxy. Today, she seems to be losing her memory and isn't always aware of what she's doing. How do I go about implementing this measure?

If it appears that your mother is no longer capable of looking after her own interests, you must inform her of your intention to implement the mandate. Her condition must then be certified by a doctor chosen from a list drawn up by the public prosecutor. This medical certificate and…
See more
We are married and have no children. When I die, will my husband inherit my property even though we are married under the separation of property regime?

Yes. When a person dies without descendants, their surviving spouse is entitled to inherit their estate, either alone or in concurrence with the deceased's father and mother (according to articles 756 and 757-1 of the Civil Code). Civil law defines the 'successor' spouse as the surviving, undivorced spouse of the…
See more
What are the conditions for adopting a stepchild?

"I want to adopt the child my wife had from a previous union. His biological father is deceased. Is this possible?" Notary David Ambrosiano answers your questions on the BFM Business program "Le Club du Droit / Passez-moi le notaire".
See more
I am married under the regime of legal community. I must receive compensation in accordance with a decision of the industrial tribunal, in compensation for my moral damage following the harassment to which I was subjected by my employer (...)

... Will the amount collected fall under the community? No. If the community consists of all the property acquired during the marriage by the couple, the indemnities which are exclusively attached to the person of the husband or wife following an action for compensation for bodily injury or moral, constitute…
See more
I entered into a civil partnership 5 years ago. We separated 2 years ago without breaking our civil union. I've met someone and we're getting married. Is it true that marriage automatically ends the civil union?

Yes, the marriage of one of the partners, including to a third party, automatically terminates the Civil union (art. 515-7, al. 1 C. civ.). The civil registrar at the place of the ceremony must make a note of the marriage in the margin of the birth certificate (of the ex-partner…
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I am associated with my spouse and my brother in a family SCI subject to IR. With my spouse, we occupy one of the properties of the SCI as our main residence. The SCI has decided to sell this property (...)

Will the 3 partners be exempt from real estate capital gains? No. Capital gains realized on the sale of the main residence of the seller on the day of the sale are exempt (article 150 U, II-1° of the General Tax Code). When the property is held through a company…
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My husband and I have been living apart for several years and no longer have any contact. I found out that he's started a new life. Is it possible to deprive him of all the rights to my estate?

No. Subject to the absence of children and the predecease of the deceased's father and mother, the surviving (non-divorced) spouse is entitled to the full inheritance of his or her spouse (art. 757-2 C. civ.). Although you can reduce your husband's rights by bequeathing your assets to whomever you wish…
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A few years ago, my mother had her notary draw up a mandate for future protection and appointed me as proxy. I've accepted this responsibility, but I'd like to give it up. Is this possible?

Yes, but under certain conditions. As long as the mandate has not taken effect, you can renounce your status as mandatary (art. 489 al. 2 C. civ. and 492 al. 3 C. civ.). You must notify your decision to your mother, the mandator, by registered letter with acknowledgement of receipt…
See more
We have two children and have changed our matrimonial regime to universal community. If one of us dies, will the surviving spouse inherit all the community property?

Everything depends on the wording of your marriage contract. If there is an "allotment to the surviving spouse" clause, the surviving spouse becomes the owner of the entire estate. Failing this, the estate is divided between the surviving spouse and the 2 children in accordance with the law.
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4 years ago my father took out a loan to buy his house. The bank then registered a mortgage on the property. We recently had him placed under curatorship. We've just learned that he hasn't paid the last instalments and that the bank is threatening to...

...seize his house. Is this possible despite the protective measure? Yes. The protection of the protected person's home has the effect of limiting the acts that his representative can perform (art. 426 C. civ.). However, this does not mean that the property cannot be seized by creditors, in this case…
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I wish to adopt (simple adoption) the adult children of my wife. I have adult children myself, born from a previous union. Do they have to consent to this adoption ?

No. When the adopter himself has children, the court called upon to rule in regard to the adoption verifies that it is not likely to compromise family life (art. 353, para. 3 C. civ. by 361 reference). However, as part of the documents which need to be provided in support…
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I have an adult disabled child. I'd like to be able to choose the person in charge of his or her interests in the event of my death. Is this possible?

Yes. It is possible to draw up a "future protection" mandate before a notary, in which you appoint a trustworthy person to look after your child's interests. You must be materially and emotionally responsible for your child at the time the mandate is signed, and the child must be unable…
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Do I need to make an appointment with a notary before getting married?

Sophie Sabot-Barcet, notary, answers Marc's question: should I make an appointment with a notary before getting married? Yes, to find out beforehand and receive advice on the choice of matrimonial property regime. Marriage is a contract between the parties. If you don't go to a notary, you'll be married in…
See more
My brother is considering to adopt his spouse's 2 minor children, she had them before. It would be a simple adoption. Our elderly mother is a widow. In the event that my brother dies before our mother, will the adopted children inherit her?

Yes, but…In the context of a simple adoption, the adopted child inherits from his family of origin and also from his adoptive family (Articles 364 and 368 of the Civil Code). If your brother were to predecease your mother, his adopted children would represent their father in his mother's estate…
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I am married under the community property regime and am in the process of getting divorced. I own my own property and I'm wondering if there are any costs involved in repossessing it?

Yes, you will be required to pay a fee to the notary in charge of liquidating the community estate, representing 0.5916% (incl. VAT) of the value of the property taken over. Added to this is the cost of any formalities. On the other hand, this value is not included in…
See more
My husband was retired. He passed away and left a huge debt. I plan to renounce his succession. Am I still entitled to the survivor's pension?

Yes. By renouncing the succession of your spouse, you lose the status of heir (article 805 of the Civil Code). On the other hand, you retain the status of spouse. However, the survivor's pension is a right reserved for the spouse or ex-spouse in the event of the death of…
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A few months before her death, my mother took out a loan from a bank. However, I had taken steps to have her placed under guardianship. She died before the judge made his decision. Can I still take legal action and request the cancellation of this loan?

Yes. When a person benefits from a guardianship, only his guardian can request the annulment of the act for insanity of mind (art. 414-2 C. civ. and 475 al. 1 C. civ.) for the protected person's account. This action can also be brought by his heirs but only in certain…
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I am married under the separate property regime. My wife and I live in an apartment that I own. I want to sell it and the notary tells me that my wife's consent is required. Is it true?

Yes. This rule is intended to protect the family home and applies even when this property belongs to one of the spouses only. In the absence of your wife's consent to this sale, she could request the cancellation within one year from the day she became aware of it and…
See more
My ex-husband passed away. He was very spendthrift. As the legal representative of our minor child, I am considering making an acceptance up to the net assets on his behalf. Is the authorization of the guardianship judge obligatory?

No. Acceptance up to the amount of the net assets makes it possible to limit the patrimonial risks for the heir since he is not liable for the debts of the deceased, on his personal assets. As long as this acceptance does not present a risk for the minor to…
See more
Pacs: how can you reserve your entire inheritance for your partner?

"I'm currently in a civil union with my partner and we have two children. I also have a child from my first marriage. We each own 50% of an apartment. I'd like to bequeath the entire usufruct to my current wife, but above all, I don't want to bequeath it…
See more
My partner is of foreign nationality. We plan to get married. Will our union allow him/her to immediately acquire French nationality?

No. Marriage does not automatically have any effect on the nationality (art. 21-1 C. civ.). When a foreign person marries a French person and wishes to obtain the French nationality, they must apply for it by filing a declaration of French nationality via marriage with the dedicated access platform of…
See more
My son passed away. He was married and had a daughter. My daughter-in-law opted for the usufruct of the entire estate of her late husband, which only includes money. The notary told my granddaughter that she would not receive the money ...

... from this inheritance until her mother passed away. Is this true? Yes. In theory, the usufructuary cannot dispose of the property of the concerned usufruct. However, the Civil Code allows an exception when the usufruct includes elements that cannot be used without consuming them, such as money. In which…
See more
I am married under the regime of legal community. I must receive compensation in accordance with a decision of the industrial tribunal, in compensation for my moral damage following the harassment to which I was subjected by my employer (...)

... Will the amount collected fall under the community? No. If the community consists of all the property acquired during the marriage by the couple, the indemnities which are exclusively attached to the person of the husband or wife following an action for compensation for bodily injury or moral, constitute…
See more
I am the sole owner of a studio apartment that I would like to give to my daughter, retaining the usufruct. I am married. When I die, will my husband benefit from the usufruct of this property?

No. In principle, usufruct ends with the death of the usufructuary (art. 617 C. civ.). However, if the donor retains the usufruct of the donated property, it is possible to include a "reversion of usufruct" clause in the deed of donation. In this way, on the donor's death, the usufruct…
See more
I am in the process of divorcing my husband, the non-conciliation order has just been made. If I acquire a property (married in community regime), will it belong to me in its entirety?

Buying real estate during divorce proceedings is possible, but the operation is risky. Under the old contentious divorce regime (procedures initiated before January 1, 2021, as in your case), the date of the effects of the divorce between the spouses is fixed on the date of the ONC, subject to…
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We have two children and have changed our matrimonial regime to universal community. If one of us dies, will the surviving spouse inherit all the community property?

Everything depends on the wording of your marriage contract. If there is an "allotment to the surviving spouse" clause, the surviving spouse becomes the owner of the entire estate. Failing this, the estate is divided between the surviving spouse and the 2 children in accordance with the law.
See more
My wife and I are married under the community of property regime. We haven't been living together for several years and would like to have this legal separation declared by a judge. If we ever decide to live together again, what would be the consequences?

The resumption of cohabitation puts an end to the legal separation and re-establishes the previous effects attached to the marriage, with the exception of the matrimonial property regime, the separation of property being maintained (art. 305, al. 1 and 3 C. civ.). Please note: for this situation to be known…
See more
My spouse refuses to contribute to household expenses on the grounds that my salary is higher than his. Does he have the right?

No. Married couples are required to contribute to the expenses of marriage and the maintenance of children, regardless of their matrimonial regime. The wedding expenses include various expenses, in particular those relating to accommodation and food. If the spouses are free to provide in their marriage contract a distribution of…
See more
A few years ago, my mother had her notary draw up a mandate for future protection and appointed me as proxy. I've accepted this responsibility, but I'd like to give it up. Is this possible?

Yes, but under certain conditions. As long as the mandate has not taken effect, you can renounce your status as mandatary (art. 489 al. 2 C. civ. and 492 al. 3 C. civ.). You must notify your decision to your mother, the mandator, by registered letter with acknowledgement of receipt…
See more
As part of a process of medically assisted procreation, my partner and I must go to a notary to obtain our consent. Is this agreement subject to registration fees ?

No. Article 847 bis of the General Tax Code provides for an exemption from registration fees; in regard to the prior consent to be obtained by a notary (article 342-10 of the Civil Code). As an extension of the bioethics law of August 2, 2021, which extends medically assisted reproduction…
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My husband has passed away. As part of his support obligation, he paid his parents a sum every month to help them pay for their retirement home (EPHAD). Will I have to continue paying it?

It depends. The law stipulates that daughters-in-law and sons-in-law are obliged to help their parents-in-law materially and financially as part of the obligation to provide support (art. 206 C. civ.). The death of your husband does not terminate this obligation (Lyon Jan. 25, 1967). On the other hand, if you…
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My wife and I are married without a contract. She left the marital home several years ago. We don't want a divorce or legal separation. However, we would like to declare our income separately. Is this possible?

Yes, under certain conditions. In principle, when you are married, you are subject to joint taxation with your spouse for the income each of you receives (art. 6, 1, CGI). However, it is possible to request separate taxation when one of the spouses has abandoned the marital home and each…
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My husband was retired. He passed away and left a huge debt. I plan to renounce his succession. Am I still entitled to the survivor's pension?

Yes. By renouncing the succession of your spouse, you lose the status of heir (article 805 of the Civil Code). On the other hand, you retain the status of spouse. However, the survivor's pension is a right reserved for the spouse or ex-spouse in the event of the death of…
See more
A few years ago, my parents, who were married and living separate and apart, set up an SCI subject to income tax. They were the only two partners. My mother has died, and my father has opted for usufruct. As the bare owner of my mother's shares, I...

...became a partner in the company. Do I have to declare the company's profits? No. When ownership of shares is divided between a usufructuary and a bare owner, it is up to the usufructuary to declare the sums he or she receives from the company's profits (art. 8 CGI), which…
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Following their divorce, my father paid his ex-wife a compensatory allowance, in the form of an annuity. He has passed away. I learned that she was going to receive a survivor's pension. Are these two services cumulative?

No. When the compensatory allowance was paid in the form of an annuity, at the time of the death of the debtor spouse, in principle it is immediately payable in the form of a lump sum. Reversion pensions are deducted from the amount of this compensatory allowance (art. 280-1 and…
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4 years ago my father took out a loan to buy his house. The bank then registered a mortgage on the property. We recently had him placed under curatorship. We've just learned that he hasn't paid the last instalments and that the bank is threatening to...

...seize his house. Is this possible despite the protective measure? Yes. The protection of the protected person's home has the effect of limiting the acts that his representative can perform (art. 426 C. civ.). However, this does not mean that the property cannot be seized by creditors, in this case…
See more
My cousin passed away. She was married but separated from her spouse. She had no children, no siblings and her parents passed away as well. In her will, she bequeathed all of her real estate to me. My notary tells me that if I give up (...)

... her property will revert to her spouse. Is it correct? Yes. Renunciation of a bequest has the effect of rendering the testamentary disposition null and void (art. 1043 C. civ.). The devolution of inheritance then takes place as if this provision had never existed. Since your cousin has no…
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A few years ago, my mother signed a mandate for future protection and appointed me as her proxy. Today, she seems to be losing her memory and isn't always aware of what she's doing. How do I go about implementing this measure?

If it appears that your mother is no longer capable of looking after her own interests, you must inform her of your intention to implement the mandate. Her condition must then be certified by a doctor chosen from a list drawn up by the public prosecutor. This medical certificate and…
See more
We are married and have no children. When I die, will my husband inherit my property even though we are married under the separation of property regime?

Yes. When a person dies without descendants, their surviving spouse is entitled to inherit their estate, either alone or in concurrence with the deceased's father and mother (according to articles 756 and 757-1 of the Civil Code). Civil law defines the 'successor' spouse as the surviving, undivorced spouse of the…
See more
My father owned and operated a farm. My brother participated in this activity without being paid but received the profits from the exploitation. Can he claim a deferred salary as part of our father's estate?

No. To be able to benefit from a deferred salary claim, the descendants of the deceased farmer must be over the age of 18 and participate directly and effectively in the operation. However, they must not have been associated with profits and losses, nor received salaries in cash (L.321-13 C…
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My brother is in need. Our parents are deceased and he's not married with no children. Our relationship is very bad. Am I obliged to help him?

No. The French Civil Code does not provide for an obligation to provide support between brothers and sisters. However, the courts do recognize the existence of a natural obligation: this means that your brother in need cannot force you to help him, but that you can help him voluntarily. However…
See more
A few years ago, my parents, who were married and living separate and apart, set up an SCI subject to income tax. They were the only two partners. My mother has died, and my father has opted for usufruct. As the bare owner of my mother's shares, I...

...became a partner in the company. Do I have to declare the company's profits? No. When ownership of shares is divided between a usufructuary and a bare owner, it is up to the usufructuary to declare the sums he or she receives from the company's profits (art. 8 CGI), which…
See more
Do I need to make an appointment with a notary before getting married?

Sophie Sabot-Barcet, notary, answers Marc's question: should I make an appointment with a notary before getting married? Yes, to find out beforehand and receive advice on the choice of matrimonial property regime. Marriage is a contract between the parties. If you don't go to a notary, you'll be married in…
See more
My partner to whom I was not married has passed away. He had entered into a mandate for future protection and appointed our daughter as mandatary. This convention has never been implemented. Can my daughter invoke it to settle the estate on her own?

No. The purpose of the mandate for future protection is to allow a designated person (the mandatary) to represent the mandator who could no longer provide for his interests alone (article 477 of the Civil Code). This mandate ends on the death of the principal, whether it has been implemented…
See more
My brother is considering to adopt his spouse's 2 minor children, she had them before. It would be a simple adoption. Our elderly mother is a widow. In the event that my brother dies before our mother, will the adopted children inherit her?

Yes, but…In the context of a simple adoption, the adopted child inherits from his family of origin and also from his adoptive family (Articles 364 and 368 of the Civil Code). If your brother were to predecease your mother, his adopted children would represent their father in his mother's estate…
See more
Pacs: how can you reserve your entire inheritance for your partner?

"I'm currently in a civil union with my partner and we have two children. I also have a child from my first marriage. We each own 50% of an apartment. I'd like to bequeath the entire usufruct to my current wife, but above all, I don't want to bequeath it…
See more
My spouse benefited from his partner's mutual insurance contract. The rupture of their Civil union was registered in Sept. , the mention on the birth certificates was made then. In the meantime, he'd an accident. Does he still benefit from the contract?

Yes. The termination of the Civil union only becomes opposable to third parties, here to the mutual insurance company, from the day when the publicity formalities have been completed, which means, from the mention made by the state civil officer on the birth certificates of the partners (art. 515-7, al.8…
See more
As part of a process of medically assisted procreation, my partner and I must go to a notary to obtain our consent. Is this agreement subject to registration fees ?

No. Article 847 bis of the General Tax Code provides for an exemption from registration fees; in regard to the prior consent to be obtained by a notary (article 342-10 of the Civil Code). As an extension of the bioethics law of August 2, 2021, which extends medically assisted reproduction…
See more
My spouse refuses to contribute to household expenses on the grounds that my salary is higher than his. Does he have the right?

No. Married couples are required to contribute to the expenses of marriage and the maintenance of children, regardless of their matrimonial regime. The wedding expenses include various expenses, in particular those relating to accommodation and food. If the spouses are free to provide in their marriage contract a distribution of…
See more
Nurse, one of my patients has memory loss, she lives alone with no known family. Can I request the opening of a legal protection measure for her?

Yes, but under certain conditions. In principle, only some people can ask the guardianship judge to open a protective measure (art. 430 C. civ.). These are, first and foremost, the person to be protected and his or her immediate family. Third parties should therefore not be able to apply for…
See more
My boyfriend and I want to get married. We are 19 years old. He's a foreigner, and in his country the age of majority is 21. Can we still enter a civil partnership in France?

No, only individuals of legal age are permitted to enter a civil union (Art. 515-1 C. civ.). Additionally, as it involves a contract, one must also possess the capacity to contract. For persons of foreign nationality, their legal capacity is determined by the laws of their respective countries (Art. 3…
See more
I am married under the community property regime and am in the process of getting divorced. I own my own property and I'm wondering if there are any costs involved in repossessing it?

Yes, you will be required to pay a fee to the notary in charge of liquidating the community estate, representing 0.5916% (incl. VAT) of the value of the property taken over. Added to this is the cost of any formalities. On the other hand, this value is not included in…
See more
I am the sole owner of a studio apartment that I would like to give to my daughter, retaining the usufruct. I am married. When I die, will my husband benefit from the usufruct of this property?

No. In principle, usufruct ends with the death of the usufructuary (art. 617 C. civ.). However, if the donor retains the usufruct of the donated property, it is possible to include a "reversion of usufruct" clause in the deed of donation. In this way, on the donor's death, the usufruct…
See more
My partner is of foreign nationality. We plan to get married. Will our union allow him/her to immediately acquire French nationality?

No. Marriage does not automatically have any effect on the nationality (art. 21-1 C. civ.). When a foreign person marries a French person and wishes to obtain the French nationality, they must apply for it by filing a declaration of French nationality via marriage with the dedicated access platform of…
See more
My ex-husband passed away. He was very spendthrift. As the legal representative of our minor child, I am considering making an acceptance up to the net assets on his behalf. Is the authorization of the guardianship judge obligatory?

No. Acceptance up to the amount of the net assets makes it possible to limit the patrimonial risks for the heir since he is not liable for the debts of the deceased, on his personal assets. As long as this acceptance does not present a risk for the minor to…
See more
We have just gotten married without a contract, but we have changed our minds and wish to divide our property. Is there a deadline to make this change?

No. Since 2019 it is no longer mandatory to wait two years before being able to change the matrimonial regime. Note: this change must always be carried out in the interest of the family (art. 1397 C. civ.).
See more
6 years ago, my partner and I entered a civil partnership and had our agreement drawn up by a notary. We had opted for an undivided property regime. For professional reasons, we'd now like to adopt a separate property regime. Should we contact the notary?

Yes. If you wish to modify your Civil union, you can draw up a new agreement between yourselves, or have it drawn up by a notary. However, as your initial agreement was drawn up by a notary, you must send him your amended agreement so that he can register it…
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My uncle wants to give me a building plot. I'm married with joint ownership. Will my husband have any rights to the property?

Yes, in principle. When spouses adopt the regime of universal community, all movable and immovable property owned by them on the day of adoption of this regime, and all that they acquire subsequently, are held in common (art. 1526 C. civ.), with the exception of property that is private by…
See more
Nurse, one of my patients has memory loss, she lives alone with no known family. Can I request the opening of a legal protection measure for her?

Yes, but under certain conditions. In principle, only some people can ask the guardianship judge to open a protective measure (art. 430 C. civ.). These are, first and foremost, the person to be protected and his or her immediate family. Third parties should therefore not be able to apply for…
See more
My son passed away. He was married and had a daughter. My daughter-in-law opted for the usufruct of the entire estate of her late husband, which only includes money. The notary told my granddaughter that she would not receive the money ...

... from this inheritance until her mother passed away. Is this true? Yes. In theory, the usufructuary cannot dispose of the property of the concerned usufruct. However, the Civil Code allows an exception when the usufruct includes elements that cannot be used without consuming them, such as money. In which…
See more
I am married under the separate property regime. My wife and I live in an apartment that I own. I want to sell it and the notary tells me that my wife's consent is required. Is it true?

Yes. This rule is intended to protect the family home and applies even when this property belongs to one of the spouses only. In the absence of your wife's consent to this sale, she could request the cancellation within one year from the day she became aware of it and…
See more
I entered into a civil partnership 5 years ago. We separated 2 years ago without breaking our civil union. I've met someone and we're getting married. Is it true that marriage automatically ends the civil union?

Yes, the marriage of one of the partners, including to a third party, automatically terminates the Civil union (art. 515-7, al. 1 C. civ.). The civil registrar at the place of the ceremony must make a note of the marriage in the margin of the birth certificate (of the ex-partner…
See more
My spouse benefited from his partner's mutual insurance contract. The rupture of their Civil union was registered in Sept. , the mention on the birth certificates was made then. In the meantime, he'd an accident. Does he still benefit from the contract?

Yes. The termination of the Civil union only becomes opposable to third parties, here to the mutual insurance company, from the day when the publicity formalities have been completed, which means, from the mention made by the state civil officer on the birth certificates of the partners (art. 515-7, al.8…
See more
My father is going to lend me 10,000 euros. I signed him an acknowledgment of debt. Should it be declared to the taxes? What is the difference with the registration of the deed?

Yes, loan contracts for an amount greater than 5,000 euros must be declared (article 49B appendix 3 and article 23L appendix 4 of the CGI) to the tax authorities on form no. 2062. You must file this declaration at the same time as your next annual income tax return, either…
See more
I am a widow and I have 2 children who do not get along. I wish to choose the person who will represent me if I were to be placed under judicial protection. Is it possible ?

Yes. Any person may designate in advance the person responsible for exercising the functions of curator or tutor if they were to be placed under a measure of judicial protection (art. 448 C. civ.). To be valid, the designation must be made by declaration before a notary, or by an…
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What are the conditions for adopting a stepchild?

"I want to adopt the child my wife had from a previous union. His biological father is deceased. Is this possible?" Notary David Ambrosiano answers your questions on the BFM Business program "Le Club du Droit / Passez-moi le notaire".
See more
We have just gotten married without a contract, but we have changed our minds and wish to divide our property. Is there a deadline to make this change?

No. Since 2019 it is no longer mandatory to wait two years before being able to change the matrimonial regime. Note: this change must always be carried out in the interest of the family (art. 1397 C. civ.).
See more
Before our marriage my husband owned a car which he sold during the marriage. The notary tells me that he received a reward equal to the sale price. Is this normal ?

Yes. When the spouses are married under the regime of the legal community, three patrimonies are to be distinguished: the patrimony specific to each spouse and the common patrimony. During couple life, financial movements often take place between the different assets. The mechanism of rewards is intended to restore the…
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My wife and I are married under the community of property regime. We haven't been living together for several years and would like to have this legal separation declared by a judge. If we ever decide to live together again, what would be the consequences?

The resumption of cohabitation puts an end to the legal separation and re-establishes the previous effects attached to the marriage, with the exception of the matrimonial property regime, the separation of property being maintained (art. 305, al. 1 and 3 C. civ.). Please note: for this situation to be known…
See more
My brother is in need. Our parents are deceased and he's not married with no children. Our relationship is very bad. Am I obliged to help him?

No. The French Civil Code does not provide for an obligation to provide support between brothers and sisters. However, the courts do recognize the existence of a natural obligation: this means that your brother in need cannot force you to help him, but that you can help him voluntarily. However…
See more
My boyfriend and I want to get married. We are 19 years old. He's a foreigner, and in his country the age of majority is 21. Can we still enter a civil partnership in France?

No, only individuals of legal age are permitted to enter a civil union (Art. 515-1 C. civ.). Additionally, as it involves a contract, one must also possess the capacity to contract. For persons of foreign nationality, their legal capacity is determined by the laws of their respective countries (Art. 3…
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My wife and I are married without a contract. She left the marital home several years ago. We don't want a divorce or legal separation. However, we would like to declare our income separately. Is this possible?

Yes, under certain conditions. In principle, when you are married, you are subject to joint taxation with your spouse for the income each of you receives (art. 6, 1, CGI). However, it is possible to request separate taxation when one of the spouses has abandoned the marital home and each…
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I have an adult disabled child. I'd like to be able to choose the person in charge of his or her interests in the event of my death. Is this possible?

Yes. It is possible to draw up a "future protection" mandate before a notary, in which you appoint a trustworthy person to look after your child's interests. You must be materially and emotionally responsible for your child at the time the mandate is signed, and the child must be unable…
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Before our marriage my husband owned a car which he sold during the marriage. The notary tells me that he received a reward equal to the sale price. Is this normal ?

Yes. When the spouses are married under the regime of the legal community, three patrimonies are to be distinguished: the patrimony specific to each spouse and the common patrimony. During couple life, financial movements often take place between the different assets. The mechanism of rewards is intended to restore the…
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My father owned and operated a farm. My brother participated in this activity without being paid but received the profits from the exploitation. Can he claim a deferred salary as part of our father's estate?

No. To be able to benefit from a deferred salary claim, the descendants of the deceased farmer must be over the age of 18 and participate directly and effectively in the operation. However, they must not have been associated with profits and losses, nor received salaries in cash (L.321-13 C…
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I wish to adopt (simple adoption) the adult children of my wife. I have adult children myself, born from a previous union. Do they have to consent to this adoption ?

No. When the adopter himself has children, the court called upon to rule in regard to the adoption verifies that it is not likely to compromise family life (art. 353, para. 3 C. civ. by 361 reference). However, as part of the documents which need to be provided in support…
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6 years ago, my partner and I entered a civil partnership and had our agreement drawn up by a notary. We had opted for an undivided property regime. For professional reasons, we'd now like to adopt a separate property regime. Should we contact the notary?

Yes. If you wish to modify your Civil union, you can draw up a new agreement between yourselves, or have it drawn up by a notary. However, as your initial agreement was drawn up by a notary, you must send him your amended agreement so that he can register it…
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My husband has passed away. As part of his support obligation, he paid his parents a sum every month to help them pay for their retirement home (EPHAD). Will I have to continue paying it?

It depends. The law stipulates that daughters-in-law and sons-in-law are obliged to help their parents-in-law materially and financially as part of the obligation to provide support (art. 206 C. civ.). The death of your husband does not terminate this obligation (Lyon Jan. 25, 1967). On the other hand, if you…
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I am a widow and I have 2 children who do not get along. I wish to choose the person who will represent me if I were to be placed under judicial protection. Is it possible ?

Yes. Any person may designate in advance the person responsible for exercising the functions of curator or tutor if they were to be placed under a measure of judicial protection (art. 448 C. civ.). To be valid, the designation must be made by declaration before a notary, or by an…
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My cousin passed away. She was married but separated from her spouse. She had no children, no siblings and her parents passed away as well. In her will, she bequeathed all of her real estate to me. My notary tells me that if I give up (...)

... her property will revert to her spouse. Is it correct? Yes. Renunciation of a bequest has the effect of rendering the testamentary disposition null and void (art. 1043 C. civ.). The devolution of inheritance then takes place as if this provision had never existed. Since your cousin has no…
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I lived with one person for thirty years. We wanted to get married, the banns had been published, but he died before the ceremony. Can I have our marriage registered after his death?

Yes, in exceptional cases, posthumous marriage may be authorized by the President of the Republic under article 171 of the French Civil Code. Two conditions must be met: it must be proven that the deceased really wished to marry, based on a sufficient number of facts (his or her behavior…
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My husband and I have been living apart for several years and no longer have any contact. I found out that he's started a new life. Is it possible to deprive him of all the rights to my estate?

No. Subject to the absence of children and the predecease of the deceased's father and mother, the surviving (non-divorced) spouse is entitled to the full inheritance of his or her spouse (art. 757-2 C. civ.). Although you can reduce your husband's rights by bequeathing your assets to whomever you wish…
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My partner to whom I was not married has passed away. He had entered into a mandate for future protection and appointed our daughter as mandatary. This convention has never been implemented. Can my daughter invoke it to settle the estate on her own?

No. The purpose of the mandate for future protection is to allow a designated person (the mandatary) to represent the mandator who could no longer provide for his interests alone (article 477 of the Civil Code). This mandate ends on the death of the principal, whether it has been implemented…
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I lived with one person for thirty years. We wanted to get married, the banns had been published, but he died before the ceremony. Can I have our marriage registered after his death?

Yes, in exceptional cases, posthumous marriage may be authorized by the President of the Republic under article 171 of the French Civil Code. Two conditions must be met: it must be proven that the deceased really wished to marry, based on a sufficient number of facts (his or her behavior…
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A few months before her death, my mother took out a loan from a bank. However, I had taken steps to have her placed under guardianship. She died before the judge made his decision. Can I still take legal action and request the cancellation of this loan?

Yes. When a person benefits from a guardianship, only his guardian can request the annulment of the act for insanity of mind (art. 414-2 C. civ. and 475 al. 1 C. civ.) for the protected person's account. This action can also be brought by his heirs but only in certain…
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My mother, who has Alzheimer's disease, lives in a retirement home. The latter no longer has enough cash to finance it. Is it possible within the framework of a family authorization to ask the judge to buy back the premiums of her life insurance contract?

Yes. When a person is no longer able to express their will due to a medically confirmed alteration of their mental faculties, it is possible to request a family authorization from the guardianship judge. The authorization may be general or relate only to certain acts in regard to the protected…
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Following their divorce, my father paid his ex-wife a compensatory allowance, in the form of an annuity. He has passed away. I learned that she was going to receive a survivor's pension. Are these two services cumulative?

No. When the compensatory allowance was paid in the form of an annuity, at the time of the death of the debtor spouse, in principle it is immediately payable in the form of a lump sum. Reversion pensions are deducted from the amount of this compensatory allowance (art. 280-1 and…
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I am in the process of divorcing my husband, the non-conciliation order has just been made. If I acquire a property (married in community regime), will it belong to me in its entirety?

Buying real estate during divorce proceedings is possible, but the operation is risky. Under the old contentious divorce regime (procedures initiated before January 1, 2021, as in your case), the date of the effects of the divorce between the spouses is fixed on the date of the ONC, subject to…
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My uncle wants to give me a building plot. I'm married with joint ownership. Will my husband have any rights to the property?

Yes, in principle. When spouses adopt the regime of universal community, all movable and immovable property owned by them on the day of adoption of this regime, and all that they acquire subsequently, are held in common (art. 1526 C. civ.), with the exception of property that is private by…
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I am associated with my spouse and my brother in a family SCI subject to IR. With my spouse, we occupy one of the properties of the SCI as our main residence. The SCI has decided to sell this property (...)

Will the 3 partners be exempt from real estate capital gains? No. Capital gains realized on the sale of the main residence of the seller on the day of the sale are exempt (article 150 U, II-1° of the General Tax Code). When the property is held through a company…
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